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   Sandra Kröger    Associate Researcher


Institutional affiliation: Politics department, University of Exeter

Specialist fields: European Integration, Soft Law Governance, Democracy, Civil Society Organizations
  
   Short Biography

Sandra Kröger holds degrees in social sciences (Humboldt-University in Berlin, Paris VIII) and Interdisciplinary France studies (University Freiburg). She developed and completed her PhD in the context of the graduate programme “The Future of the European Social Model” (supervisors: Prof. Ilona Ostner and Prof. Claus Offe). The dissertation dealt with the OMC in the field of social inclusion and its implementation in France and Germany. From 2006-8, she lectured at the Georg-August University Göttingen and the Humboldt University Berlin in the fields of European social policy governance, European integration theory, and poverty in the EU. Before joining the Institute of European Integration Research (Vienna) in May 2008, she researched the inclusion of civil society organizations in EU policy-making processes as part of a larger research project directed by Prof. Beate Kohler-Koch. She joined the Jean Monnet Centre for European Studies at the University of Bremen in October 2008 as a senior researcher and lecturer. Her current research focuses on democratic representation in the EU which she empirically investigates with regard to organised civil society.

 
   Publications
2017
Realising the potential of EU simulations - Practical guidance for beginners
Kröger, S. (2017)
European political science, forthcoming
2016
Europeanised or European? Representation by Civil Society Organizations in EU policy-making
Kröger, S. (2016) 
Colchester: ECPR Press.
National Parliaments and the Politicization of European
Kröger, S. and Bellamy, R. (eds.) (2016) 
Integration. Special issue with Comparative European Politics 14(2).
The politicization of European integration: National Parliaments and the democratic disconnect
Bellamy, B. and Kröger, S. (2016)
Comparative European Politics, 14(2), 125-130.
Beyond a Constraining Dissensus: The Role of National Parliaments in domesticating and normalising the policization of European integration
Kröger, S. and Bellamy, R. (2016)
Comparative European Politics, 14(2), 131-153.
2015
Democratic representation as the normative and organizing principle of the EU
Kröger, S. (2015) 
In: Piattoni, S. (ed.), The European Union: Institutional Architectures and Democratic Principles in Times of Crisis, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 112-136.
Political Representation and Democracy in Europe
Kröger, S. (2015) 
In: Mazey, S. and Richardson, J. (eds.), European Union: Power and Policy-Making. 4th edition, London: Routledge, 467-492.
2014
Domesticating the Democratic Deficit? The Role of National Parliaments and Parties in the EU’s System of Governance
Bellamy, R. and Kröger, S. (2014) 
Parliamentary Affairs, 67(2), 437-457.
Political Representation in the European Union: Still Democratic 
Kröger, S. (ed.) (2014) 
in Times of Crisis? London: Routledge.
The search for democratic representation in times of crisis
Kröger, S. (2014) 
In: Kröger, S. (ed.), Political Representation in the European Union: Still Democratic in Times of Crisis? London: Routledge, 1-16.
The involvement of the constituencies of European umbrella organizations in EU affairs
Kröger, S. (2014) 
In: Kröger, S. (ed.), Political Representation in the European Union: Still Democratic in Times of Crisis? London: Routledge, 143-160.
2013
Democratic representation in the EU: Two kinds of subjectivity
Kröger, S. (2013) 
Journal of European Public Policy, forthcoming (jointly with Dawid Friedrich)
Representation and Democracy in the EU: Does one come at the expense of the other? 
Bellamy, R. and Kröger, S. (eds.) (2013) 
Special issue with the Journal of European Integration 35 (5).
The Representation Deficits and Surpluses in EU Policy-Making
Bellamy, R. and Kröger, S. (2013)
Journal of European Integration, 35(5), 477-497.
Creating a European demos? The representativeness of European umbrella organizations
Kröger, S. (2013)
Journal of European Integration 35(5), 583-600.
Introduction: The representative turn in EU studies
Kröger, S. and Friedrich, D. (2013)
Journal of European Public Policy, 20(2): 155-170.
Democratic representation in the EU: Two kinds of subjectivity
Kröger, S. and Friedrich, D. (2013)
Journal of European Public Policy, 20(2): 171-189.
Representation and Democracy in the EU: Does one come at the expense of the other?
Bellamy, R. and S. Kröger (eds.) 2013
Special issue with the Journal of European Integration, 35(5).
The representative turn in EU studies
Kröger, S. and D. Friedrich (eds.) (2013)
Special issue with the Journal of European Public Policy, 20 (2). 
(full text)
2012
Europe hits home – The domestic deficits of representative democracy in EU affairs
Kröger, S. (2012) 
In: Evas, T., Liebert, U. and Lord, C. (eds.) Multilayer Representation in the European. Parliaments, Courts, Civil Society and the Public Sphere. Nomos: Baden-Baden, (jointly with Richard Bellamy), pp. 41-58.
Domesticating the Democratic Deficit ? The Role of National Parliaments and Parties in the EU’s System of Governance
Kröger, S. (2012) 
Parliamentary Affairs (jointly with Richard Bellamy), doi:10.1093/pa/gss045
Interdisciplinary Views on Political Representation in the EU
Kröger, S. (ed.) (2012) 
European Institute, UCL, summer 2012, WP 04/2012, August 2012, 124p.
Introduction: Representing views on political representation in the EU
Kröger, S. (2012) 
In: Kröger, S., 2012 (ed.), Interdisciplinary Views on Political Representation in the EU, European Institute, UCL, summer 2012, WP 04/2012, August 2012, pp. 1-14.
Representation in the European Union: Coping with present challenges to democracy?
Kröger, S. and Friedrich, D. (eds.) (2012)
Palgrave Macmillan: Houndmills.
Representation in the EU: The second transformation
Kröger, S. with Friedrich, D. (2012)
In: Kröger, S. and Friedrich, D. (eds.). Representation in the European Union: Coping with present challenges to democracy?, Palgrave Macmillan: Houndmills, pp. 3-20.
Democracy promoter or interest defender? How the European Commission influences non-electoral representation by civil society organizations
Kröger, S. (2012)
In: Kröger, S. and Friedrich, D. (eds.). Representation in the European Union: Coping with present challenges to democracy?, Palgrave Macmillan: Houndmills, pp. 226-240.
Transformation as differentiation. The diversity of representation in the European Union
Kröger, S. with Friedrich, D. (2012)
In: Kröger, S. and Friedrich, D. (eds.). Representation in the European Union: Coping with present challenges to democracy?, Palgrave Macmillan: Houndmills, pp. 259-273.
2011
Corporate social responsibility: A means of reconciling economic and social integration in the EU? 
Kröger, S.(2011)
In: Schiek, D., Liebert, U. and Schneider, H. (eds.) European Economic and Social Constitutionalism after the Treaty of Lisbon, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.225-250.
Europe hits home – The domestic deficits of representative democracy in EU affairs
Kröger, S. with Bellamy, R. (2011)
European Institute, UCL, WP No. 2, November 2011
Five years down the road: An evaluation of the streamlining of the Open Method of Coordination in social policy fields
Kröger, S. (2011)
OSE Paper Series, Briefing Paper No. 8, September 2011, 
Politische Steuerung durch quantifizierte Ziele und Benchmarking?
Kröger, S. (2011)
In: Deutsche Rentenversicherung Bund (Hg.) Renten in Europa. Die Offene Methode der Koordinierung im Bereich Alterssicherung - Bilanz und Perspektiven, Internationale Tagung am 6. und 7. May 2010 in Berlin, DRV-Schriften: Bd. 92, Sonderausgabe der DRV, pp.88-96.
2010
Die Offene Methode der Koordinierung: Zehn Jahre später und (k)ein bisschen weiser?
Kröger, S. (2010)
In Sesselmeier, W. (Hg.), Möglichkeiten und Grenzen eines europäischen Sozialstaats, Sonderheft Zeitschrift für sozialen Fortschritt 59 (5): pp.134-141.
 
2009
The Open Method of Coordination: Underconceptualisation, overdetermination, de-politicisation and beyond
Kröger, S. (2009) 
In Kröger, S. (ed.) What we have learnt: Advances, pitfalls and remaining questions in OMC research, European Integration online Papers, Special issue 1 (13).
| PDF
What we have learnt: Advances, pitfalls and remaining questions of OMC research
Kröger, S. (ed.) (2009)
European Integration Online Papers, special issue 1 (13).
| PDF
The effectiveness of soft governance in the field of European anti-poverty policy: Operationalisation and empirical evidence
Kröger, S. (2009)
Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis 11 (2): pp.197-211.
Ideas, interests or institutions? The drivers of recent reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP)
Kröger, S. (2009)
EIF Working Paper 02/2009.  |
PDF
2008
Soft governance in hard politics. European coordination of anti-poverty policies in France and Germany
Kröger, S. (2008)
Wiesbaden: VS Verlag.
Nothing but consultation: The place of organised civil society in EU policy-making across policies
Kröger, S. (2008)
European Governance Papers (EUROGOV) No. C-08-03  |
PDF
2007
The end of democracy as we know it? The legitimacy deficits of bureaucratic social policy governance 
Kröger, S. (2007)
In Democracy and Soft Modes of Governance in the EU, Special issue of Journal of European Integration 29 (5):565-582.
Die Europäische Kommission und die Zukunft der EU: Ideenfabrik zwischen europäischem Auftrag und nationalen Interessen. 
Fischer, R., Karrass, A. und Kröger, S. (Hg.) (2007) 
Budrich: Opladen.
Die Europäische Kommission im Spiegel ihrer Zeit
Kröger, S. (2007)
In Fischer, R., Karrass, A. und Kröger, S. (Hg.), Die Europäische Kommission und die Zukunft der EU: Ideenfabrik zwischen europäischem Auftrag und nationalen Interessen. Budrich: Opladen, pp.327-342.
Mittendrin und doch außen vor? Die Armutspolitik der Europäischen Kommission (1975-2006) 
Kröger, S. (2007)
In Fischer, R., Karrass, A. und Kröger, S. (Hg.), Die Europäische Kommission und die Zukunft der EU: Ideenfabrik zwischen europäischen Auftrag und nationalen Interessen. Budrich: Opladen, pp.251-273.
2006
When Learning Hits Politics Or: Social Policy Coordination Left to the Administrations and the NGOs?
Kröger, S. (2006)
European Integration online Papers 10 (3).

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